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The term "total alkalinity" refers to the total concentration of bases in water expressed in milligrams per litre of equivalent calcium carbonate. Determination of alkalinity is carried out by titration to two end points; first, by titrating with standard acid to a phenolphthalein endpoint, and second by titration to a methyl orange endpoint. The total amount of acid used in the titration, expressed as equivalent calcium carbonate, represents the total alkalinity. The amount of acid required to titrate to the phenolphthalein end point (pH 8.3), expressed as equivalent calcium carbonate, is the phenolphthalein alkalinity.